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Climate change

 Climate Change Issue

The potential effects of Climate Change on the forecasting models

The forecasting methodology for both market and financial forecasts does take the potential effects of climate change into account. The United Nations, OECD and various other forecasting models will in future provided some 'Climate Change' indicators in their forecasts, however these forecasts tend to be politically influenced. The DataGroup forecasting methodology uses scientific forecasting models to attempt to evaluate these factors and then project their effects on supply and demand. 


In anticipation of the macro and micro economic effects of global climate change, the rising of sea levels, and the concomitant effects on the economic environment, DataGroup will (from 2025 onwards) include a series of economic scenarios on Climate Change, Sea Level Rises and Population Perceptions for each database and the results of this on the market and financial forecasting matrices.

The scenarios cover many probabilities, as proposed or identified by current scientific consensus, and include probability ranges as well as the cascade effects of those scenarios on the macro and micro economic environments.

For example, if global warming melts a major part of the Greenland and/or Antarctic Ice Sheets by 2050, then sea levels may rise by 7 meters. In these circumstances the following national markets may disappear or be restricted because their existing coastal infrastructure will have been inundated:-







British Virgin Islands

Cayman Islands


Faroe Islands


French Polynesia





Hong Kong








Micronesia Federated States






Saint Pierre and Miquelon





Trinidad and Tobago

Turks and Caicos Islands


Virgin Islands

Clearly the situation for the less developed countries will be much graver than that for the richer countries; however some of the (per capita) richest countries in the world will be irrevocably damaged by global warming.  The critical factors for these countries include the existing ports and coastal infrastructure and the financial ability of the country to undertake coastal defence schemes. The cost / benefit calculations of attempting to defend a coast will vary according to each country and in many instances countries will have no option but to abandon the inundated coastal areas.

Many developed countries will experience substantial costs in protecting coastal areas and will have to finance these costs in the long-term. It is unclear if the global financial systems will be able to develop a global financial model to finance the substantial coastal infrastructure construction projects which will be necessary to allow the world economies to continue to function. There currently exists no initiative amongst governments or central bankers to develop a global financial system to underwrite the necessary coastal infrastructure construction schemes.

For example, a ‘7 meter Sea Rise Scenario’ will produce many consequential macro and micro economic forecasting factors and economic effects, including the following for the Netherlands:-

Physical effect

The 7 meter Sea Rise Scenario shows the physicals effects on the Netherlands if remedial measures are not implemented by the national government. The Dutch government are currently planning for only a 1 meter sea rise and intend to augment sea defences accordingly. This limited sea defence protection will however impose a current account burden on government finances and it is uncertain if the Dutch government will be able to finance sea defence schemes in the event of a higher than 1 meter sea level rise.

The area shaded in pink represents the potential area of inundation, flood, salination or groundwater pollution in the event of a 7 meter rise in sea level.

7 meter Sea Rise Scenario

Clearly no national government can allow the sea to inundate their country and thus the government will be forced into action, irrespective of the costs, to attempt to prevent or rectify the situation. The unknown factor is whether the government would be able to raise or attract the necessary international financing of the sea barrier and infrastructure construction projects.

National Response

Potential Political

Scenario Indicators

Economic Forecast


Political response

National physical response

To construct coastal sea barriers.

Infrastructure costs

Construction of 1500 kms of sea barriers, inlet and river defences = $200 billion.

 Re-construction of ports and coastal facilities =  $100 billion.

Increased government infrastructure spending. Decreased government social spending.

Disruption to existing economic models and matrices. Creation of new forecasting parameters in the construction and supporting industries.

Economic response

Taxation consequences

Sharply increased taxation on consumers and industry.

Sharp decrease in domestic disposable incomes and corporate profitability.

Economic activity consequences

Channeling of government expenditure into coastal projects. Restrictions on capital movements. Inflation pressures.

Restrictions in public and private consumption of goods and services and recession.

Movements of corporate and private funds.

Civil consequences

Government direction / control of the population and employment factors.

Emigration of productive workers and investors. Possible civil unrest.

International co-operation and support

Financing from supra-national and international sources.  Co-operation with neighbouring countries for coastal defence schemes.

Long term debt and need for severe economic constraints on the domestic economy.

Severe Balance of Trade deficits.

Population response

Consumer Financial consequences

Government measures to restrict consumer demand.

Consumer finances depressed. Consumer investments values depressed.

Employment consequences

Government attempts to maintain employment levels conflicts with need to raise taxation revenues.

Unemployment levels rise and demand suppression multipliers take effect.

Migration consequences

Confused Government policies regarding immigration and workforce replenishment.

Emigration of professional and skilled workers.

Socio-Economic consequences

Government measures to stabilize the socio-economic effects of the situation.

Population uncertainty about financial security and continued investment in country. Population migration to neighbouring countries.

Psychological and psychometric response

Government measures to reduce public disquiet and uncertainty.

Population disquiet about personal risk and safety if sea defences fail.

Industry Response

Supply & Demand consequences

Government measures to stabilize industry and commerce.

Disruption of existing supply and demand norms and forecasting matrices.

Investment consequences

Government measures to secure investments in industry and commerce.

Reduction of investments and capital expenditure by industry and commerce.

Physical Factors


Physical Consequence of this Scenario


Best Scenario

Success of Sea Barriers

Worst Scenario

Failure of Sea Barriers


total: 41,526 sq km

land: 33,883 sq km

water: 7,643 sq km

total: 41,526 sq km

land: 31,526 sq km

water:10,000 sq km

total: 41,526 sq km

land: 13,883 sq km

water: 27,643 sq km


451 km

451 km

800 km

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: -7 m

highest point: 322 m

lowest point:  -7 m

highest point: 322 m

lowest point: -14 m

highest point: 315 m

Land use:

arable land: 21.96%

permanent crops: 0.77%

other: 77.27%

arable land: 18%

permanent crops: 1%

other: 81%

arable land: 10%

permanent crops:1%

other: 89%

Irrigated land:

5,650 sq km

7,000 sq km

3,000 sq km

 * simulated data for illustration

Economic forecasting factors


Consequence of this Scenario


Best Scenario

Success of Sea Barriers

Worst Scenario

Failure of Sea Barriers


$500 billion

$450 billion

$200 billion

GDP (official):

$600 billion

$530 billion

$230 billion

GDP growth:




GDP/per capita (PPP):




GDP - sectors:

agriculture: 2.1%

industry: 24.4%

services: 73.6%

agriculture: 2%

industry: 20%

services: 78%

agriculture: 2%

industry: 15%

services: 83%

Labor force:

7.53 million

7 million

4 million

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 2%

industry: 19%

services: 79%

agriculture: 3%

industry: 18%

services: 79%

agriculture: 2%

industry: 12%

services: 86%





Population poverty line:




Household income distribution:

lowest 10%: 2.5%

highest 10%: 22.9%

lowest 10%: 2%

highest 10%: 25%

lowest 10%: 1.5%

highest 10%: 35%

Gini index:




Inflation rate:





19.5% of GDP

15% of GDP

9% of GDP


revenues: $291.8 billion

expenditures: $303.7 billion

revenues: $200 billion

expenditures: $3000 billion

revenues: $150 billion

expenditures: $3000 billion

Public debt:

52.7% of GDP

200% of GDP

800% of GDP

Agriculture - products:

grains, potatoes, sugar beets, fruits, vegetables; livestock

grains, potatoes, sugar beets, fruits, vegetables

fruits, vegetables; livestock


Agro-industries, metal and engineering products, electrical machinery and equipment, chemicals, petroleum, construction, microelectronics, fishing

Agro-industries, metal and engineering products, electrical machinery and equipment, construction

Metal and engineering products, electrical machinery and equipment, construction, fishing

Industry growth:




Current account:

$39.95 billion

-$300 billion

-$600 billion


$365.1 billion f.o.b.

$330 billion f.o.b.

$100 billion f.o.b.

Exports - partners:

Germany 25%, Belgium 13%, France 9.5%, UK 9%, Italy 5.5%, US 4.%, Spain 4%

Germany 34%, Belgium 15%, France 9%, UK 9%, Italy 5%, US 2%, Spain 4%

Germany 54%, Belgium 16%, France 5%, UK 5%, Italy 5%, US 2%, Spain 2%


$326.6 billion f.o.b.

$600 billion f.o.b.

$250 billion f.o.b.

Imports - commodities:

machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs, clothing

machinery and equipment, materials, fuels

machinery, fuels, foodstuffs, clothing

Imports - partners:

Germany 16.6%, Belgium 9%, China 9%, US 8%, UK 5.8%, France 5%, Russia 4%

Germany 20%, Belgium 12%, China 4%, US 4%, UK 8%, France 6%, Russia 6%

Germany 25%, Belgium 12%, China 4%, US 3%, UK 8%, France 7%, Russia 7%

Foreign exchange:

$20.54 billion

$2 billion

$0 billion

Debt - external:

$1,645 billion

$3,000 billion

$6,000 billion

* simulated data for illustration

Demographic forecasting factors


Consequence of this Scenario


Best Scenario

Success of Sea Barriers

Worst Scenario

Failure of Sea Barriers





Age structure:

0-14 years: 18%

15-64 years: 67.8%

65 years and over: 14.2%

0-14 years: 16%

15-64 years: 66%

65 years and over: 18%

0-14 years: 20%

15-64 years: 60%

65 years and over: 20%

Median age:

39.4 years

38 years

42 years

Population growth rate:




Birth rate:

10.9 births/1,000 population

9 births/1,000 population

6 births/1,000 population

Death rate:

8.68 deaths/1,000 population

9 deaths/1,000 population

12 deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate:

2.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population

-3 migrant(s)/1,000 population

-9 migrant(s)/1,000 population

Infant mortality:

total: 4.96 deaths/1,000 live births

total: 6 deaths/1,000 live births

total: 9 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy:

total population: 78.96 years

total population: 71 years

total population: 65 years

Total fertility rate:

1.66 children born/woman

1.5 children born/woman

1.1 children born/woman

* simulated data for illustration